Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0
Arabidopsis thaliana
M-type_MADS Family
Species TF ID Description
AT1G01530.1AGAMOUS-like 28
AT1G17310.1M-type_MADS family protein
AT1G18750.1AGAMOUS-like 65
AT1G22590.2AGAMOUS-like 87
AT1G28450.1AGAMOUS-like 58
AT1G28460.1AGAMOUS-like 59
AT1G29962.1AGAMOUS-like 64
AT1G31630.1AGAMOUS-like 86
AT1G31640.1AGAMOUS-like 92
AT1G33070.1M-type_MADS family protein
AT1G46408.1AGAMOUS-like 97
AT1G47760.1AGAMOUS-like 102
AT1G48150.1M-type_MADS family protein
AT1G54760.1AGAMOUS-like 85
AT1G59810.1AGAMOUS-like 50
AT1G60040.1AGAMOUS-like 49
AT1G60920.1AGAMOUS-like 55
AT1G65300.1AGAMOUS-like 38
AT1G65330.1M-type_MADS family protein
AT1G65360.1AGAMOUS-like 23
AT1G69540.1AGAMOUS-like 94
AT1G72350.1M-type_MADS family protein
AT2G03060.1AGAMOUS-like 30
AT2G03060.2AGAMOUS-like 30
AT2G24840.1AGAMOUS-like 61
AT2G26320.1AGAMOUS-like 33
AT2G28700.1AGAMOUS-like 46
AT2G34440.1AGAMOUS-like 29
AT2G40210.1AGAMOUS-like 48
AT3G04100.1AGAMOUS-like 57
AT3G05860.1M-type_MADS family protein
AT3G05860.2M-type_MADS family protein
AT3G05860.3M-type_MADS family protein
AT3G18650.1AGAMOUS-like 103
AT3G66656.1AGAMOUS-like 91
AT4G02235.1AGAMOUS-like 51
AT4G11250.1AGAMOUS-like 52
AT4G36590.1M-type_MADS family protein
AT5G04640.1AGAMOUS-like 99
AT5G06500.1AGAMOUS-like 96
AT5G26630.1M-type_MADS family protein
AT5G26650.1AGAMOUS-like 36
AT5G26880.1AGAMOUS-like 26
AT5G26950.1AGAMOUS-like 93
AT5G27050.1AGAMOUS-like 101
AT5G27070.1AGAMOUS-like 53
AT5G27090.1AGAMOUS-like 54
AT5G27090.2AGAMOUS-like 54
AT5G27130.1AGAMOUS-like 39
AT5G27580.1AGAMOUS-like 89
AT5G27810.1M-type_MADS family protein
AT5G27944.1M-type_MADS family protein
AT5G27960.1AGAMOUS-like 90
AT5G37415.1AGAMOUS-like 105
AT5G38620.1M-type_MADS family protein
AT5G38740.1AGAMOUS-like 77
AT5G39750.1AGAMOUS-like 81
AT5G39810.1AGAMOUS-like 98
AT5G40120.1AGAMOUS-like 76
AT5G40220.1AGAMOUS-like 43
AT5G41200.1AGAMOUS-like 75
AT5G48670.1AGAMOUS-like 80
AT5G49420.1M-type_MADS family protein
AT5G49490.1AGAMOUS-like 83
AT5G55690.1M-type_MADS family protein
AT5G58890.1AGAMOUS-like 82
AT5G60440.1AGAMOUS-like 62
AT5G65330.1AGAMOUS-like 78
M-type_MADS (M-type MADS) Family Introduction

The best studied plant MADS-box transcription factors are those involved in floral organ identity determination. Analysis of homeotic floral mutants resulted in the formulation of a genetic model, named the ABC model, that explains how the combined functions of three classes of genes (A, B, and C) determine the identity of the four flower organs (reviewed by Coen and Meyerowitz, 1991). Arabidopsis has two A-class genes (AP1 and AP2 [Bowman et al., 1989]), two B-class genes (PI and AP3), and a single C-class gene (AG), of which only AP2 is not a MADS-box gene. Recently, it was shown that the Arabidopsis B- and C-function genes, which control petal, stamen, and carpel development, are functionally dependent on three highly similar MADS-box genes, SEP1, SEP2, and SEP3 (Pelaz et al., 2000). Interestingly, only when mutant knockout alleles of the three SEP genes were combined in a triple sep1 sep2 sep3 mutant was loss of petal, stamen, and carpel identity observed, resulting in a flower composed of only sepals. This example shows that redundancy occurs in the MADS-box gene family, which complicates reverse genetic strategies for gene function analysis. The SHP genes provide another example of MADS-box gene redundancy. shp1 and shp2 single mutants do not exhibit any phenotypic effect, whereas in the double mutant, development of the dehiscence zone is disturbed in the fruit, resulting in a failure to release seeds (Liljegren et al., 2000)[1].

It has been proposed that there are at least 2 lineages (type I and type II) of MADS-box genes in plants, animals, and fungi. Most of the well-studied plant genes are type II genes and have three more domains than type I genes from the N to the C terminus of the protein:intervening (I) domain (~30 codons), keratin-lik e coiled-coil (K) domain (~70 codons), and Cterminal (C) domain (variable length). These genes are called the MIKC-type and are specific to plants[2].

The MADS-box is a DNA binding domain of 58 amino acids that binds DNA at consensus recognition sequences known as CArG boxes [CC(A/T)6GG] (Hayes et al., 1988; Riechmann et al., 1996b). The interaction with DNA has been studied in detail for the human and yeast MADS-box proteins thanks to the resolved crystal structures (Pellegrini et al., 1995; Santelli and Richmond, 2000). The I domain is less conserved and contributes to the specification of dimerization. The K domain is characterized by a coiled-coil structure, which facilitates the dimerization of MADS-box proteins (Davies et al., 1996; Fan et al., 1997). The C domain is the least conserved domain; in some cases, it has been shown to contain a transactivation domain or to contribute to the formation of multimeric MADS-box protein complexes (Egea-Cortines et al., 1999; Honma and Goto, 2001)[1].

1.Parenicova L, de Folter S, Kieffer M, Horner DS, Favalli C, Busscher J, Cook HE, Ingram RM, Kater MM, Davies B, Angenent GC, Colombo L.
Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the complete MADS-box transcription factor family in Arabidopsis: new openings to the MADS world.
Plant Cell. 2003 Jul;15(7):1538-51.
PMID: 12837945
2.Nam J, dePamphilis CW, Ma H, Nei M.
Antiquity and evolution of the MADS-box gene family controlling flower development in plants.
Mol Biol Evol. 2003 Sep;20(9):1435-47. Epub 2003 May 30.
PMID: 12777513